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宗教、ヘイト・スピーチ、right to offend people、信仰しない自由

2015.01.18
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(2015年1月17日付け、タイムズから)

フィリピン滞在中のローマ法王フランシスがした、「freedom of speech」についての発言を、イギリスのメディアは風刺している。ま、現法王はこれくらいのことで激昂するほど器が小さい人ではないだろう。幾つかの中で、ガーディアンで最も賛否両論のポリィ・トインビィさんのコラムに賛同する点がある。

On Charlie Hebdo Pope Francis is using the wife-beater’s defence
http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/jan/16/pope-francis-free-speech-charlie-hebdo

On the day another cartoonist victim was buried at Père Lachaise cemetery, the pope came as near as dammit to suggesting that Charlie Hebdo had it coming. “One cannot provoke; one cannot insult other people’s faith; one cannot make fun of faith,” he said.

Oh yes, you can. You may not choose to. It may not be wise or polite or kind – but you can. And to show you can, without being gunned down, Charlie Hebdo has just gone on sale in the UK, in bolder outlets, proudly defiant with an image of Muhammad on the cover – though with a tear and a kindly thought: “All is forgiven.”

The pope pointed to his aide as he said “If my good friend Dr Gasparri says a curse word against my mother, he can expect a punch. It’s normal. It’s normal. You cannot provoke. You cannot insult the faith of others. You cannot make fun of the faith of others.”

No, it’s not normal to punch someone who insults you; the pope’s Christ certainly didn’t think so. Verbal provocation is never an excuse for violence – that’s the wife-beater’s defence.

Is he saying we must respect any old cult: followers of Black Sabbath, Odin, Scientology, astrology? Or is it the size of a faith that earns it the right to gag mockery?

Whenever the faiths come together to protect their rights jointly, you should smell a rat. They don’t just believe very different things; their professions contradict one another. In real life, it’s Catholic against Protestant, Hindu against Muslim, except in the soup blender of Thought for the Day, where only gentle and similar voices preaching peace and understanding get a voice. Absent is the red-hot ferocity that fuels the Islamists of Isis as they slaughter Christians, or the proselytising Nichiren Bhuddists, or the extremists from Northern Ireland’s religious fringes. Religion is gentle only when it’s powerless, without secular influence.

Charlie Hebdo’s cover will no doubt offend some Muslims – and possibly provoke some. That’s the role of a satirical magazine: to stick two fingers up to propriety. It is a belch in the face of established taste and dignity. You can buy it or not, find it funny or not. Its previous circulation was small, but knowing anything can be said keeps the outer edges of free expression healthy.

The pope went on to say: “There is a limit. Every religion has its dignity … in freedom of expression there are limits.”

Yes, free speech always had limits – the old shouting fire in a theatre or inciting others to violent racial hatreds: those boundaries will be forever disputed. But there has been much ducking and diving over the last week, with a pretence those limits include a ban on offending religious sensitivity. That’s what the pope was proclaiming, demanding a special, anti-Voltairean status of protection for religious ideas – a respect never given to political or other ideas just as passionately held.

Today another 50 lashes with the cane rain down on Raif Badawi in Saudi Arabia. “Je suis Raif” is starting to trend on social media as he faces 19 more weeks of flogging for writing his secularist blog Free Saudi Liberals. Governments that flocked to march in solidarity for free speech in Paris last Saturday have done little about this atrocity – far worse when inflicted by a state than by God-delirious terrorists acting as divine executioners. If all those leaders linking arms turned their backs on any dealings with Saudi Arabia, whose Wahbabist insanity has been sent out to infect parts of the Muslim world, they would make more than a gesture for free speech.

The right to make fun of popes, imams and prophets is fading fast as self-censorship for commercial, as much as self-preserving, instincts stops the presses.

The flurry of scandal over Oxford University Press stopping its children’s writers from referring to pigs or pork for fear of risking Middle East sales – or the Harper Collins atlases for export that mysteriously omit Israel for the same reason – show how easily freedom slips away unless scurrilous outriders like Charlie Hebdo can keep mocking church and mosque.

 
 僕の立ち位置。宗教は人類が作り出した幻想。幻想に人間が殺されることほど非人道な行為は無い。

 パリで起きた殺戮についての分析、報道は次第に、そして大きく方向性を見失っていると感じる。宗教と言論の自由を同時に考察する時、回答が一つだけということはあり得ないだろう。

 宗教に助けられる生活があることを否定する気はない。しかし、生活が宗教に振り回されるのは本末転倒。人を救えない、社会を分断する宗教を何故受け入れなければならないのか。信仰の自由を人は訴えるとき、信仰「しない」自由を踏みにじる。全く同じ意見ではないが、やはりガーディアンのコラムニスト、スーザン・ムーアさんの発言が興味深い。

Add faithophobia to my crimes: I have no respect for religions that have little respect for me
http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/jan/14/charlie-hebdo-add-faithophobia-to-my-crimes

Last week I asked for us to continue in our disrespect and I meant it. Why must I have respect for religions that have little respect for me? That seek to curtail the rights of women? That find me unclean? I am not just talking about Islam here, but pretty much all religion. So there is some equal opportunity offence for you. Faithophobia. Add it to the list of my crimes.

Critique is not blasphemy. Texts can be reinterpreted. Tolerance has to be reciprocal or it is not tolerance at all. We should at least be honest now. Those who don’t believe in any god have as many rights as those who do.


 どのメディアで読んだのか既に思い出せないが、パリでのテロの直後、「time to think about our right to offend」と言う一文が目に留まった。これまでの20年あまり、社会はポリティカル・コレクトネスにがんじがらめになり、対象を論理的に考察する意義を失ってしまったように思う。

 ヘイト・スピーチとどこが違うのか、という議論はつきないだろうし、線引きは難しいだろう。しかし、「それはどこかが間違っているのではないか?」という声を、他者を傷つけるのは良くないという過剰防衛で、自らの可能性を否定することは悲しい。

 たとえ宗教が無くなっても、人が人を殺すことを止める、ということは無いだろう。でも、宗教によって命が踏みにじられるなんてことは、今直ぐにでもなくなって欲しい。

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(2015年1月18日付け、インディペンデントから拝借)

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